Section 1. Promotion and Benefits of Advanced Distribution Management System(ADMS)

1.1 The Situation of TPC promotes advanced power distribution management system (ADMS)

According to the description of the SMART GRID INDEX document 2.1 Monitoring & Control, Monitoring & Control is divided into three stages: SCADA, DMS, and ADMS. The ADMS functions should include on-site real-time data collection and control (SCADA), Automatic fault location, isolation and supply restoration(FLISR) and outage management system (OMS) application.
Taiwan Power Company has developed various power distribution application management systems since 1992. As of the end of December 2020, it has established outage management system (OMS) and Feeders Dispatch Control System (FDCS) with functions such as SCADA, FDIR (Automatic Fault Detection, Isolation and Restoration , or called FLISR),and feeder single line diagram and GIS (geographic map information) in 23 Distribution Branches, covering 7,815 automated feeders (the total feeder number is 10,135 , 77.1%), 26,364 automatic switches included, and 10,193,073 customers (71.5%); the whole 23 FDCS systems in operation are equipped with ADMS functions, the automatic fault location, isolation and supply restoration (FLISR), described in SMART GRID INDEX file 2.1 Monitoring & Control.

1.2 Promotion of advanced distribution management system (ADMS)

1.The process of building an advanced power distribution management system

(1) Since 1995, TPC introduced the FDCS system software, and built it on a trial basis in North-South (Nihon Vending system) and Taichung (ACS system) Distribution Branch between 1995 and 2002. The two systems have been equipped with monitoring and control, data collection, and line fault detection, isolation and restoration functions and feeder schematic diagrams. During operation in the two Distribution Branch, fully obtained valuable experience and verify the feasibility and benefits of system operation.

(2) In order to integrate the functions of Distribution Feeder Automation, SCADA, fault detection, isolation and restoration(FDIR/FLISR) and Outage management system(OMS) providing for Distribution dispatching in each Distribution Branch, TPC decided to purchase different FDCS system in 2003 at the North-South and Kaohsiung Distribution Branch. To verify the different brand of FDCS system for the integration of SCADA, FDIR and OMS specific ways, TPC had evaluated the two brands of system through FDCS indicators by people who has experience and practical in distribution network operation. To select the suitable one for operation in Taiwan distribution network, as the distribution system operating standards in Taiwan.

(3) In 2007, the winning FDCS system (Siemens) that was built in Kaohsiung District Districts was selected to promote all Distribution Branch in the Taiwan. The FDCS system acceptance project was carried out in Taoyuan County, and a team composed of inter-departmental and academic staff from TPC was responsible for functional verification. At the same time, the training plan (Industrial Corporation Program, ICP) was carried out, and the maintenance and operation technology was transferred to TPC. For the specific construction process of TPC FDCS system, please refer to the following table 1-1.

In 2007, the FDCS system (Siemens) of the winning Kaohsiung Distribution Branch will be selected to promote power distribution areas throughout Taiwan. The FDCS system acceptance project was carried out in Taoyuan County.

Table 1-1. TPC FDCS system establishment process

2. Current implementation of FDCS system-wide environment

(1) There are currently 23 FDCS systems in operation and their distribution is shown in Figure 1-1. The system has been built successively since 2004, which can provide the ADMS functions required by Taiwan’s 22kV and 11kV power distribution feeders.

(2) The FDCS GIS database is updated from OMS to the FDCS system by incremental update at least twice a week. The data will be verified in OMS before the data is imported into the FDCS system, and the imported data will also be verified before launching it into the real-time database of FDCS system.

(3) In the 5 Distribution Branch, North City, Hsinchu, Miaoli, Tainan and Kaohsiung, the FDCS system monitors both the Meshed network and the Redial network. The FDCS systems in all other Distribution Branch only monitor the normally Redial network. The FDCS system can automatically perform fault detection and isolation and upstream power recovery, or provide options to be executed after the plan is confirmed by operators, and provide downstream power recovery recommended operating steps.

(4) FDCS system provides dispatcher training simulator (Dispatcher Training Simulator, DTS), which can be used for time-testing training of operators in daily dispatching operation exercises. All operators must test different power outage scenarios in the DTS server.

(5) FDCS performs local and remote backups daily and weekly to improve the reliability of the dispatch system.

Figure 1-1. Automated system build distribution map

1.3 Existing system architecture

The FDCS system is applied to the power distribution system 11.4Kv and 22.8kV overhead and underground Redial network distribution feeders. The feeder dispatching control center’s servers monitor the operation of the distribution line through the communication system and the feeder information terminal equipment. When the line fault occurs, it can quickly and automatically isolate the line fault section, automatically restore the power supply of the line's sound section, and provide GIS map information for the dispatcher and the on-site repair personnel to the area affected by the accident.

1.4 Existing system function description

1. Control center: It mainly provides SCADA+FDIR functions, and has geographic map data (GIS) processing capabilities, providing operators with complete operation screens and dispatching information; and when an accident occurs, it can assist operators to quickly restore upstream and downstream sound sections to restore power. The expansion capacity provided by the system allows feeders and substations in the whole district to be included in the scope of Distribution Feeder Automation.

2. Field equipment: It can monitor various substation information terminal equipment (FRTU), feeder information terminal equipment (FTU) and other equipment installed on Redial network means or Meshed network.

Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) function
-Monitor and control of automated switches, and devices within substation
-Map type display for electrical network topology

-SCADA provides GIS display for operation

Device Location Function
-Easily navigate to required display from alarm event list, equipment tag, road name, landmark, etc.

Feeder Schematic Display (SLD)
Feeder schematic display based on electrical network topology

Circuit Breaker status on feeder schematic display based on electrical network topology

Circuit Breaker operation display with integrated information

Integrates various types of information on operation display

Incident detection, isolation and power recovery (FDIR)

-Automatic/manual detection of accident zones, isolation and upstream power recovery, and provision of re-supply schemes
-Disable all or part of the FDIR function for the entire system/substation/feeder as a unit
*Natural disasters: FDIR prohibition of the whole system
*Substation/main transformer shutdown inspection: disable inspection of feeder FDIR
*Incident handling: FDIR of the accident feeder is disabled or FCB is prohibited from being listed
*Simulated accident transfer plan
*Simulation of BUS failure (main transformer failure) calculation and transfer plan
*Designed with Redial network distribution system
*The feeder of the Meshed network system must be set to prohibit the implementation of FDIR function
*The plan will include the judgment of the fault current direction and strengthen the FDIR function

Database incremental update and information exchange

-Software will check the updates in OMS and export into supported format to import into FDCS database.
-Circuit breaker status in FDCS can feedback to OMS system.


Communication Protocols

1.5 Existing system communication architecture

1. There is a wide area network (WAN) backbone network between the control centers (distributed as shown in Figure 1-2) planned for all 23 Distribution Branch in Taiwan, and the control centers in all 23 Distribution Branch in Taiwan have local area networks (LAN). The connection is available for data transmission. The backbone network includes optical fiber and optical fiber composite overhead ground wire (OPGW).

Figure 1-2: Overview of the distribution of control centers in the power distribution area

2. The current communication protocols used for field monitoring equipment are DNP3.0, DNP3.0 Over TCP/IP (Figure 1-3).

3. DNP3.0 is a communication protocol widely used in the industry. The FDCS use DNP3.0 over TCP/IP as the communication between the control center and FRTU and DNP3.0 as the communication between FRTU and PRTU/FTU. When the IEC61850 communication protocol product types and brands increase, the automation equipments and protection equipments in field can adopt this communication protocol to simplify field wiring and data maintenance. As the TCP/IP communication architecture is widely adopted by various wired and wireless communication equipment, the FDCS system of the power distribution feeder uses TCP/IP as the communication architecture.

Figure 1-3. Communication between control center and equipment

1.6 Promote actual performance

1. According to the goal set by the “The Smart Grid Master Plan” of the Bureau of Energy, Ministry of Economic Affairs, 900 automatic switches monitored must be increased every year from 2020 to 2030. It is expected that the goal of full automation will be achieved by 2030. At present, the total number of automated feeders by the end of 2020 has reached 7,815, and the penetration rate is about 77.1%. 26,324 feeder automatic switches have been included in the FDCS system monitoring (Figure 1-4).

Figure 1-4. The actual performance of the number of automatic feeders and the number of switches

2. The main benefits of Distribution Feeder Automation include reducing manual on-site operations, accelerating power recovery time, reducing operating costs and improving work safety.

-Statistics of the number of remote control operations for work and accidental power outages over the years

*Application computer, communication, control and other technologies and technologies to build a feeder FDCS system to perform real-time status monitoring, power remote measurement and remote operation of automatic switches of distribution feeders. According to statistics, operations will be performed due to power outages from 2007 to 2020. The number of operations increased from 230 to 8,184, and the number of maintenance operations increased from 6,493 to 71,855 (as shown in Figure 1-7), enabling operators to grasp and dispatch power distribution feeders at any time, quickly isolate faults, reduce the scope of power outages, and greatly Reduce the time for dispatching personnel to work on-site in the event of a power outage, and improve the efficiency of the operation of the distribution grid.

-TPC distribution system quality indicators over the years
*From 2007 to 2020,SAIDI TPC distribution system, dropped from 18.86 minutes to 15.21 minutes, and SAIFI dropped from 19.9 times to 17.8 times.
*Due to the promotion of the FDCS system over the years, the total number of users of TPC (including the number of non-automated feeder users) has reduced the average outage time per household from 2.67 minutes to 9.42 minutes (Figure 1-6).

Figure 1-5. The number of remote operations for power outages and accidental power outages in Distribution Feeder Automation work

-TPC distribution system quality indicators over the years
*From 2007 to 2020,SAIDI TPC distribution system, dropped from 18.86 minutes to 15.21 minutes, and SAIFI dropped from 19.9 times to 17.8 times.
*Due to the promotion of the FDCS system over the years, the total number of users of TPC (including the number of non-automated feeder users) has reduced the average outage time per household from 2.67 minutes to 9.42 minutes (Figure 1-6).

Figure 1-6. FDCS system reduces users' average power outage data

Section 2. Improve ADMS system (FDCS system) in response to the future development of smart grid

2.1 Promote the inclusion of smart grid functions

1. Taiwan is actively promoting the policy of establishing a nuclear-free home by 2025 and has set a new goal of increasing the proportion of renewable energy power generation to 20% by 2025. Renewable energy brings the hope of energy transition. TPC must respond to the grid shock caused by the high-penetration distributed power source (DER) in advance.
2. In order to create a friendly grid-connected environment, Taiwan Power Company has successively started grid improvement projects to increase the grid-connected capacity of renewable energy, and to avoid the impact of the uncertain characteristics and intermittent characteristics of renewable energy on the grid after the renewable energy is connected to the distribution network. Plan to integrate the power distribution FDCS system and the renewable energy management system and improve the flexibility of dispatching operation through its ability to monitor and integrate various information of the power distribution network.

2.2 ADMS continues to improve as a plan

2.2.1 Integrate the Data formany distribution systems of TPC

1. TPC has commissioned the Taiwan Industrial Technology Research Institute to conduct research on the introduction of Common Information Model (CIM) into smart grid application systems in 2019, and completed the CIM profile (CIM Profile) specification for TPC to build and integrate various The distribution monitoring system information is in the data application analysis platform.
2. TPC has also commissioned Taiwan Industrial Technology Research Institute to complete the GIS CIM profile format of the power distribution system. TPC will continue to implement the CIM format data exchange file (CIM Message) of each system of TPC according to this standard.

2.2.2 Continuously drive ADMS system functionality

1. The plan for a new generation of ADMS system has been completed in 2020 to replace the existing FDCS (with ADMS function), and will integrate various power distribution subsystems, in addition to re-enhancing the original FDCS functions (including FLISR, etc.), and adopt CIM data model construction Communication framework, integration of multiple information, such as DDCS, FDCS, MDMD, TTU, FCI, OMS, GIS data, use including database maintenance, system architecture, information security, SCADA processing and historical data and FLISR (FDIR), GIS map Integration of resources and OMS.
2. Introduce the industry's power distribution smart grid function
Integrate ADMS and DERM application functions, incorporate distribution power flow calculation and state estimation, refine FLISR (utilize power flow calculation) function, optimize feeder reconfiguration (Optimal Feeder Reconfiguration), import voltage/var optimization (Volt/Var Optimisation), short circuit Analysis (Short Circuit Analysis), Active Network Management (Active Network Management), Network Operation Planning (Network Operation Planning) and other smart grid functions.

Section 3. Implementation of smart grid application functions

3.1 Kinmen Distribution Branch pilots ASMS smart grid application platform

1. Take the lead in integrating renewable energy across the island
TPC is the first to pilot the introduction of a new generation of ADMS in Kinmen District in 2020 to monitor renewable energy, collect and integrate multiple information on the distribution network. Through the application of the pilot platform, TPChas the ability to manage and control the grid connection of renewable energy.
2. Import IEC61850
In the Kinmen area, the initial stage will be conducted in the form of a research project. The implementation of the IEC61850 communication standard will collect and monitor the renewable energy information of the photovoltaic (PV) field, and the pilot FTU will use IEC61850 communication.
3. Verification of FDCS smart grid application functions
Introduce advanced technologies such as power flow analysis and state estimation, and integrate smart monitoring equipment such as smart meter (AMI), transformer information terminal equipment (TTU), fault indicator (FCI), etc., to carry out distribution feeder automation SCADA, FDIR, load forecasting and regeneration The verification of advanced functions of power distribution network management, such as energy management and control, has been completed in 2020.

System one-line diagram

Accident transfer

Power flow analysis

3.2 Taiwan's industry and TPC cooperate to promote smart grid applications

TPC and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Executive Yuanjointly develop smart grid application functions, start cross-industry cooperation between domestic power companies and institutes, conduct research on feeder dispatch related technologies for high proportion of renewable energy, and has been developed conduct pilot in Yunlin Distribution Branch.

1. Complete the integration of distribution power flow calculation program in FDCS System
In 2020, complete the integration of the distribution power flow calculation program on FDCS System, and propose a feeder transfer proposal, integrate the feeder power flow and line loss programs, and use the feeder test and FDIR in Yunlin area to adjust the feeder margin, Information such as the minimum and maximum voltage mark and location, line loss, etc., will be included in the forwarding plan for operators’ reference.

Proof of tidal current calculation showing daytime surface

2. Renewable energy reverse power transmission control function

Summarize the capacity and location of the renewable energy installations and equivalent them to the main line. Use the distribution power flow analysis program to verify the reverse transmission of the renewable energy, showing that the final FTU voltage is higher than the previous one.

Reverse power transmission control of renewable energy

3. Integrate the GIS function integration of the open map platform

The development of the spatial database function of converting data in Oracle into PostgreSQL (open source) has been completed. FDCS feeder data and equipment attributes can be integrated in various open maps to achieve smart grid GIS data application.

Dispatching system geographic map and single-line diagram

Section 4. Reference

Shean-Jong Liaw.A Case Study and Its Benefit Analysis on The Distribution Feeder Automation System, National Chiao Tung University.

Tpcjournal Episode 654. A comprehensive view of power distribution technology, the most stable power grid supply.

Shih Fang Chen (2018, August 2). Intelligent capabilities of the distribution network, BUSINESS NEXT web site.

Chao-Shun Chen. Completed report on the application research of expanding the demand for power distribution planning, I-SHOU University.

Chao-Shun Chen. Feeder Automation System-Government Research Information System GRB, I-SHOU University.;keyword=Feeder%20automation%20systems;type=GRB05;scope=1

National Sun Yat-sen University.
A Study on Configuration Planning and Application of Distribution Feeder Automation System.